Biomolecules Test Answer Key

[FREE] Biomolecules Test Answer Key

Main articles: Nucleosides and Nucleotides Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides. Both DNA and RNA are...

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Biological molecules test questions

They serve as sources of chemical energy adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate , participate in cellular signaling cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate , and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions coenzyme A , flavin adenine dinucleotide , flavin mononucleotide , and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This is known as B-form DNA, and is overwhelmingly the most favorable and common state of DNA; its highly specific and stable base-pairing is the basis of reliable genetic information storage. DNA can sometimes occur as single strands often needing to be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins or as A-form or Z-form helices, and occasionally in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at Holliday junctions during DNA replication.

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RNA, in contrast, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures reminiscent of proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that constitute messenger RNA molecules. Those RNA structures contain many stretches of A-form double helix, connected into definite 3D arrangements by single-stranded loops, bulges, and junctions. These complex structures are facilitated by the fact that RNA backbone has less local flexibility than DNA but a large set of distinct conformations, apparently because of both positive and negative interactions of the extra OH on the ribose. They essentially contain an aldehyde or ketone group in their structure. Similarly, a ketone group is denoted by the prefix keto-.

Unit: Biomolecules

Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed and have different metabolic fates, providing multiple opportunities for 2 different saccharides to differentially affect food intake. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars, form a bond with removal of water. They can be hydrolyzed to yield their saccharin building blocks by boiling with dilute acid or reacting them with appropriate enzymes. Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates. They have multiple simple sugars. Examples are starch , cellulose , and glycogen. They are generally large and often have a complex branched connectivity. Because of their size, polysaccharides are not water-soluble, but their many hydroxy groups become hydrated individually when exposed to water, and some polysaccharides form thick colloidal dispersions when heated in water.

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It successfully discriminated three brands of orange juice beverage. After cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer and is one of the primary structural components of most plants. It contains subunits derived from p-coumaryl alcohol , coniferyl alcohol , and sinapyl alcohol [15] and is unusual among biomolecules in that it is racemic. The lack of optical activity is due to the polymerization of lignin which occurs via free radical coupling reactions in which there is no preference for either configuration at a chiral center.

Biomolecules Test

Lipid[ edit ] Lipids oleaginous are chiefly fatty acid esters , and are the basic building blocks of biological membranes. Another biological role is energy storage e. Most lipids consist of a polar or hydrophilic head typically glycerol and one to three non polar or hydrophobic fatty acid tails, and therefore they are amphiphilic. Fatty acids consist of unbranched chains of carbon atoms that are connected by single bonds alone saturated fatty acids or by both single and double bonds unsaturated fatty acids. The chains are usually carbon groups long, but it is always an even number. For lipids present in biological membranes, the hydrophilic head is from one of three classes: Glycolipids , whose heads contain an oligosaccharide with saccharide residues.

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Phospholipids , whose heads contain a positively charged group that is linked to the tail by a negatively charged phosphate group. Sterols , whose heads contain a planar steroid ring, for example, cholesterol. Other lipids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes which are both carbon fatty acyl units synthesized from arachidonic acid. They are also known as fatty acids Amino acids[ edit ] Amino acids contain both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. In biochemistry , the term amino acid is used when referring to those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon, plus proline which is not actually an amino acid.

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Modified amino acids are sometimes observed in proteins; this is usually the result of enzymatic modification after translation protein synthesis. For example, phosphorylation of serine by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases is an important control mechanism in the cell cycle. Only two amino acids other than the standard twenty are known to be incorporated into proteins during translation, in certain organisms: Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally a stop codon. Pyrrolysine is incorporated into some proteins at a UAG codon. For instance, in some methanogens in enzymes that are used to produce methane. Besides those used in protein synthesis , other biologically important amino acids include carnitine used in lipid transport within a cell , ornithine , GABA and taurine. Main articles: Protein structure , Protein primary structure , Protein secondary structure , Protein tertiary structure , and Protein quaternary structure The particular series of amino acids that form a protein is known as that protein's primary structure.

1.9: Biomolecule Detection

This sequence is determined by the genetic makeup of the individual. It specifies the order of side-chain groups along the linear polypeptide "backbone". Proteins have two types of well-classified, frequently occurring elements of local structure defined by a particular pattern of hydrogen bonds along the backbone: alpha helix and beta sheet. Their number and arrangement is called the secondary structure of the protein. The spiral has about 3. Beta pleated sheets are formed by backbone hydrogen bonds between individual beta strands each of which is in an "extended", or fully stretched-out, conformation. The strands may lie parallel or antiparallel to each other, and the side-chain direction alternates above and below the sheet. Hemoglobin contains only helices, natural silk is formed of beta pleated sheets, and many enzymes have a pattern of alternating helices and beta-strands.

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The secondary-structure elements are connected by "loop" or "coil" regions of non-repetitive conformation, which are sometimes quite mobile or disordered but usually adopt a well-defined, stable arrangement. It is formed as result of various attractive forces like hydrogen bonding , disulfide bridges , hydrophobic interactions , hydrophilic interactions, van der Waals force etc. When two or more polypeptide chains either of identical or of different sequence cluster to form a protein, quaternary structure of protein is formed. Quaternary structure is an attribute of polymeric same-sequence chains or heteromeric different-sequence chains proteins like hemoglobin , which consists of two "alpha" and two "beta" polypeptide chains. Apoenzymes[ edit ] An apoenzyme or, generally, an apoprotein is the protein without any small-molecule cofactors, substrates, or inhibitors bound.

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It is often important as an inactive storage, transport, or secretory form of a protein. This is required, for instance, to protect the secretory cell from the activity of that protein. Apoenzymes become active enzymes on addition of a cofactor. Cofactors can be either inorganic e. Organic cofactors can be either prosthetic groups , which are tightly bound to an enzyme, or coenzymes , which are released from the enzyme's active site during the reaction. Isoenzymes[ edit ] Isoenzymes , or isozymes, are multiple forms of an enzyme, with slightly different protein sequence and closely similar but usually not identical functions. They are either products of different genes , or else different products of alternative splicing.

3.1 Biological molecules

They may either be produced in different organs or cell types to perform the same function, or several isoenzymes may be produced in the same cell type under differential regulation to suit the needs of changing development or environment. LDH lactate dehydrogenase has multiple isozymes, while fetal hemoglobin is an example of a developmentally regulated isoform of a non-enzymatic protein.

2.1 Testing for Biological Molecules

Molecular structure of the ribosome 30S subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Starting with the work of Carl Woese , molecular studies have placed the last universal common ancestor LUCA between Bacteria and a clade formed by Archaea and Eukaryota in the phylogenetic tree of life. The result suggest that the LUCA was anaerobic with a Wood—Ljungdahl pathway , nitrogen- and carbon-fixing, thermophilic. Its cofactors suggesest dependence upon an environment rich in hydrogen , carbon dioxide, iron , and transition metals.

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Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and methylation. LUCA likely inhabited an anaerobic hydrothermal vent setting in a geochemically active environment. It is likely that the ancestral ribosome was composed entirely of RNA, although some roles have since been taken over by proteins. Major remaining questions on this topic include identifying the selective force for the evolution of the ribosome and determining how the genetic code arose.

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The RNA World concept might offer the best chance for the resolution of this conundrum but so far cannot adequately account for the emergence of an efficient RNA replicase or the translation system. The MWO ["many worlds in one"] version of the cosmological model of eternal inflation could suggest a way out of this conundrum because, in an infinite multiverse with a finite number of distinct macroscopic histories each repeated an infinite number of times , emergence of even highly complex systems by chance is not just possible but inevitable. Error in translation catastrophe[ edit ] Hoffmann has shown that an early error-prone translation machinery can be stable against an error catastrophe of the type that had been envisaged as problematical for the origin of life, and was known as "Orgel's paradox". Chiral refers to nonsuperimposable 3D forms that are mirror images of one another, as are left and right hands. Living organisms use molecules that have the same chirality "handedness" : with almost no exceptions, [85] amino acids are left-handed while nucleotides and sugars are right-handed.

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Known mechanisms for the production of non-racemic mixtures from racemic starting materials include: asymmetric physical laws, such as the electroweak interaction ; asymmetric environments, such as those caused by circularly polarized light, quartz crystals , or the Earth's rotation, statistical fluctuations during racemic synthesis, [86] and spontaneous symmetry breaking. An initial enantiomeric excess, such as can be produced by polarized light, then allows the more abundant enantiomer to outcompete the other. Various chiral crystal surfaces can also act as sites for possible concentration and assembly of chiral monomer units into macromolecules.

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This provides indirect evidence for evolution. Despite their great variety, the cells of all living organisms contain only a few groups of carbon-based compounds that interact in similar ways. Carbohydrates are commonly used by cells as respiratory substrates. They also form structural components in plasma membranes and cell walls. Lipids have many uses, including the bilayer of plasma membranes, certain hormones and as respiratory substrates. Proteins form many cell structures. They are also important as enzymes, chemical messengers and components of the blood.

Biomolecule

Nucleic acids carry the genetic code for the production of proteins. The genetic code is common to viruses and to all living organisms, providing evidence for evolution. The most common component of cells is water; hence our search for life elsewhere in the universe involves a search for liquid water. Monomers are the smaller units from which larger molecules are made. Polymers are molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together. Monosaccharides, amino acids and nucleotides are examples of monomers. A condensation reaction joins two molecules together with the formation of a chemical bond and involves the elimination of a molecule of water. A hydrolysis reaction breaks a chemical bond between two molecules and involves the use of a water molecule. Content Opportunities for skills development Monosaccharides are the monomers from which larger carbohydrates are made. Glucose, galactose and fructose are common monosaccharides. A condensation reaction between two monosaccharides forms a glycosidic bond.

Abiogenesis

Disaccharides are formed by the condensation of two monosaccharides: maltose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of two glucose molecules sucrose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule lactose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule. The basic structure and functions of glycogen, starch and cellulose.

Biological molecules test questions - GCSE Biology (Single Science) Revision - BBC Bitesize

The relationship of structure to function of these substances in animal cells and plant cells. AT f Students could use, and interpret the results of, qualitative tests for reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch. AT g Students could use chromatography, with known standard solutions, to separate a mixture of monosaccharides and identify their components. AT c Students could produce a dilution series of glucose solution and use colorimetric techniques to produce a calibration curve with which to identify the concentration of glucose in an unknown solution. Triglycerides are formed by the condensation of one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid. The R-group of a fatty acid may be saturated or unsaturated. In phospholipids, one of the fatty acids of a triglyceride is substituted by a phosphate-containing group.

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The different properties of triglycerides and phospholipids related to their different structures. The emulsion test for lipids. Students should be able to: recognise, from diagrams, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids explain the different properties of triglycerides and phospholipids. AT f Students could use, and interpret the results of, the emulsion test for lipids. The general structure of an amino acid as: where NH2 represents an amine group, COOH represents a carboxyl group and R represents a side chain. The twenty amino acids that are common in all organisms differ only in their side group.

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A condensation reaction between two amino acids forms a peptide bond. Dipeptides are formed by the condensation of two amino acids. Polypeptides are formed by the condensation of many amino acids. A functional protein may contain one or more polypeptides. The role of hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and disulfide bridges in the structure of proteins. Proteins have a variety of functions within all living organisms. The relationship between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, and protein function.

Overview of metabolism: Anabolism and catabolism

The biuret test for proteins. Students should be able to relate the structure of proteins to properties of proteins named throughout the specification. AT f Students could use, and interpret the results of, a biuret test for proteins. AT g Students could use chromatography with known standard solutions, to separate a mixture of amino acids and identify their components. The induced-fit model of enzyme action. The properties of an enzyme relate to the tertiary structure of its active site and its ability to combine with complementary substrate s to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The specificity of enzymes The effects of the following factors on the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions — enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, concentration of competitive and of non-competitive inhibitors, pH and temperature.

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Students should be able to: appreciate how models of enzyme action have changed over time appreciate that enzymes catalyse a wide range of intracellular and extracellular reactions that determine structures and functions from cellular to whole-organism level. Ribosomes are formed from RNA and proteins. Each nucleotide is formed from a pentose, a nitrogen-containing organic base and a phosphate group: The components of a DNA nucleotide are deoxyribose, a phosphate group and one of the organic bases adenine, cytosine, guanine or thymine. The components of an RNA nucleotide are ribose, a phosphate group and one of the organic bases adenine, cytosine, guanine or uracil. A condensation reaction between two nucleotides forms a phosphodiester bond. A DNA molecule is a double helix with two polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds between specific complementary base pairs.

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Biomolecules Worksheet Answers

Instructions to clean up: When your observations are complete, carefully dispose of any remaining Sudan IV solution in the container provided by your instructor. Always use gloves and do not move the container if there is a danger of spilling. Data Analysis Which of the above solutions serve as your positive control? Your negative control? Hypothesize which solutions will contain the greatest amount of lipid. Why do you believe this to be true? Which solutions contained the greatest amount of lipid?

Biomolecules | MCAT | Test prep | Khan Academy

Did your observations support your hypothesis? Were you surprised by some of the results? Part II. The Saga of the Soda Dispenser Enrique was a new employee. He wanted to stay. Today, there was a problem and he had to figure out something fast to solve it. He knew that if he did, the manager would be really pleased and his job was guaranteed. The customer claimed to be on a reduced-calorie diet and was not happy about the extra calories consumed. There was more at stake than one unhappy customer, though. The manager told Enrique that many of their customers were diabetic and consuming sugar-laden soda could alter their blood-sugar chemistry in a dangerous way. They could not allow those customers to be harmed.

Biomolecule Detection - Biology LibreTexts

Scope of the Problem If the diet soda dispenser did have regular soda, then did the regular soda dispenser have diet? What about the Dr. Pepper dispenser? That, at least, tasted like Dr. Pepper, so it was OK- or was it? What a mess! Should they throw all the soda in the dispenser out and start again? Or was there some way of determining if the soda was being dispensed correctly? If they could determine what the problem was, they could save the business money and not waste the soda products. Questions for your lab book: Does the regular soda have high fructose corn syrup in it? Write your observation in your lab book.

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